Intraspinal preparations are used to manage acute, chronic, postoperative, obstetrical, and malignant pain as well as spasticity. Agents include opiods, local anesthetics, alpha-agonists, and GABA agonists. DPSL uses strict aseptic technique in class 100 laminar flow hoods to prepare these products from U.S.P./N.F. grade chemicals. The products are sterilized with 0.22 micron filter units and adjusted for isotonicity. Quality control measures are implemented regularly per protocol.
Intrathecal preparations deliver drugs into the cerebrospinal fluid within the subarachnoid space. Intrathecal administration produces prolonged analgesia, increases patient alertness, inflicts fewer side effects, and requires lower dosing.
Epidural preparations deliver drugs into the epidural space between the dura mater and vertebral column. Epidurals are routinely used in labor and lower extremity orthopedic surgery.
Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA)
Patient-controlled analgesia is the delivery of narcotics with direct patient intervention. This method allows the patient to self-administer analgesics in proportion to the degree of pain relief desired. Epidural or intrathecal PCA has longer duration of analgesic action and eliminates the peak-and-trough effect of oral therapy.